【效率學習】覺得學校教的方法不適合自己嗎?也許你的人格特質根本就不適合!

  

  

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「我都是看影集學英文呀!」「我都去上補習班聽老師上課。」各式各樣學習語言的方法,有些人總是鐵口直斷說這樣做就對了!但有些時候不免讓人困惑,為什麼自己做起來就是這麼困難?

AT小助教認為,真正的語言學習是跟自己的性格息息相關的,你習慣怎麼樣接收資訊、習慣怎麼樣的方式去做決定、習慣怎麼樣的方式去表達,都跟每個人的性格、成長背景有很大的影響。所以,勢必也不存在一種絕對有效的學習方式去適合每一個人,或許在我們學習之前,瞭解自己是怎麼樣的人才是第一步!

就讓我們來看看語言學家結合心理學工具後,可以怎麼樣來幫助我們學習吧!

Are you a defender, an entertainer or a mediator? Those of you well-versed in personality testing will know what I’m getting at: the 16 Myers-Briggs types.

你是保護者、表演者還是治療者呢?如果你有聽過這些名詞,那你可能知道我們接下來要做的是什麼,就是MBTI16型人格測驗。

If you haven’t heard of it, the Myers-Briggs test, or MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator), is an introspective questionnaire popular in the business sector as a way to find employees that fit with the company culture. The test places those who take it into one of 16 personality type categories depending on whether they lean toward introversion/extroversion, sensing/intuition, thinking/feeling and judging/perception. Find out your Myers-Briggs type here.

如果你還不知道什麼是MBTI測驗,它是個在商業界頗為常用的人格測驗,主要是用來判斷什麼樣的員工適合什麼樣的公司文化,主要有四大面向:內向/外向、感覺/直覺、情感/思考、判斷/理解,所以總共有16種類型的人格。

So how might this connect to the way we learn, and in particular the way we learn language? Well, linguists Carol J. Orwig and Clay Johnston believe that tailoring your learning style to your personality type can help you learn a language more effectively.

那這跟學習,特別是學語言有什麼關係呢?語言學家Carol J. Orwig和Clay Johnston認為不同的人格如果採用適合的學習方式或風格,將會更有效地學習語言,(換言之,每個人最有效的學習方法是不同的!)

Read on to find out which learning style matches your type.

你可以先去做MBTI測驗以後,再來看看你是屬於哪種學習類型。

The Guardians

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40-45% of the general population

The Guardians group includes the following types:

守衛型的學習方式

大約有40%-50%的人屬於這類

包含了

ESTJ – The Executive(監督人)

ISTJ – The Logistician(調查員)

ESFJ – The Consul(供給者)

ISFJ – The Defender(保護者)

Guardian characteristics:

這樣的人有什麼特質呢?

→ Dependable, helpful, and hard-working.

可靠、樂於助人、並且認真工作

→ Loyal partners, responsible parents, and stabilizing leaders.

是忠誠的好夥伴、也是負責的支柱、或是可靠的領導者

→ Dutiful, cautious, humble, and focused on credentials & traditions.

很有責任感、謹慎、謙虛、並且重視證據和傳統

→ Concerned citizens who trust authority, join groups, seek security, prize gratitude, and believe strongly in justice.

會是相信政府的好公民、會參加團體、尋求安定、並且懂得感恩,相信正義的存在。

Individuals in this group tend to be more traditional in their thinking and seek out security. Guardians pride themselves on being dependable and trustworthy, and they often use their skills for management to keep things ticking over in their workplaces, communities and families.

這幾種類型的人通常較偏向傳統且尋求安定,守衛型的人會因為被依賴或是信賴而感到開心,他們通常貢獻他們的能力去處理工作、社區、家庭的問題。

Some notable Guardians include Hilary Clinton, Sigmund Freud, Elton John, and Rosa Parks.

著名的守衛型包括Hilary Clinton, Sigmund Freud, Elton John, and Rosa Parks.

Structured Learners

The thorough and organized personality of the Guardian type means they prefer a systematic and organized approach to learning that involves hands-on activity and opportunities to apply concepts in a practical way.

Guardians may get more out of language learning plan that is highly structured and organized as opposed to loose and spontaneous. Making a detailed plan that involves specific goals and timelines is highly motivating for this personality type.

有架構地學習者

像守衛型這類周全且有組織能力的人格特質,較偏好系統性地學習並且藉由實作活動或是機會來把觀念應用到生活中。守衛型的人會設定比較有架構的學習方法,而不是較為鬆散或是按照心情決定的。設計一個包含明確目標和時間軸的詳細計劃將會對這類型的人學習很有幫助。

The Artisans

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30-35% of the general population

The artisans group includes the following personality types:

藝術家型的學習方式

大約有30%-35%的人屬於這類

包含了:

ESTP – The Entrepreneur(推銷員)

ISTP – The Virtuoso(巧匠)

ESFP – The Entertainer(表演者)

ISFP – The Adventurer(作詞者)

Artisan characteristics:

這樣的人有什麼特質呢?

→ Fun-loving, optimistic, realistic, and focused on the present.

愛好玩樂、樂觀、實際、並且活在當下

→ Unconventional, bold, and spontaneous.

較不傳統、勇敢、自發

→ Playful partners, creative parents, and troubleshooting leaders.

他們會是有趣的夥伴、創意的來源、解決難題的領導者

As their name suggests, the Artisans are naturally gifted in the arts and often do well as musicians, dancers and actors. This personality type also does well in the athletic, military, political, mechanical, and industrial arts. Artisans love working with their hands on real-world tasks. They seek out excitement and adventure in everything they do.

就如同藝術家這個名稱,這類的人通常對於藝術特別有天份,並且經常成為音樂家、舞蹈家或是演員。這類的人格在體育、軍事、政治、技術和工業藝術上會表現得較為突出,藝術家們喜歡用他們的手和真實世界互動,他們試著找出在他們的工作中那些令人興奮、有挑戰性的部分。

Notable artisans include Mozart, Marilyn Monroe, Picasso and Madonna.

知名的藝術家類型的人包含:Mozart, Marilyn Monroe, Picasso and Madonna.

Energetic Learners

With the above description in mind, it may come as no surprise that Artisan types lean towards an energetic learning approach. They want to be involved in activities and have plenty of opportunity to meet and speak with new people. Artisans also need variety in their language learning, and a little risk does well to excite them and keep them motivated. This type would enjoy the thrill of putting themselves out there and filming or recording themselves speaking in their target language for others to comment on.

他們是活力充沛的學習者

看完了前面的描述,不意外可以推測他們喜歡的學習方式是透過不斷和新的事物接觸、和認識的朋友交談。藝術家類型的人需要在學習的過程中不斷接收新的資訊或嘗試新事物,這將會是他們最主要的學習動機來源,這類的人可能會喜歡把自己練習的成果錄下來、或者是表現給其他人看,並藉由別人的回饋改進自己。

The Rationals

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5-10% of the general population

The rationals group includes the types:

理性思考者

大約有5-10%的人屬於這類

包含了:

ENTJ – The Commander(陸軍元帥)

INTJ – The Architect(策劃人)

ENTP – The Debater(發明家)

INTP – The Logician(建築師)

Rational characteristics:

這樣的人有什麼特質呢?

→ Pragmatic, skeptical, self-contained, and focused on problem solving and systems analysis.

重視實效、批判思考、沈默寡言、專注在問題解決跟系統性思考。

→ Ingenious, independent, and strong willed.

真誠、獨立、意志堅定的

→ Reasonable partners, individualizing parents, and strategic leaders.

他們會是理性的夥伴、個別化的來源、策略性的領導者

→ Even-tempered, trust logic, yearn for achievement, seek knowledge, prize technology, and dream of understanding how the world works.

冷靜、邏輯清晰、追求成就、尋求知識、相信科學並且試圖理解這個世界是如何運作的

Rational types are more inclined to understand how complicated systems work, and because of this they excel in jobs in the sciences, mathematics, computers and engineering. This type are problem solvers to the core, and they will work tirelessly on a task until they have the answers they seek.

理性思考型的人希望理解一個複雜的系統到底是如何運作的,這也讓他們在科學、數學、電腦與工程上表現較為突出。這類的人通常喜歡解決最核心的問題,他們會竭盡所能地找到他想知道的解答才會善罷甘休。

Notable rationals include Ayn Rand, Steve Jobs, Sally Ride and Marie Curie.

著名的理性思考型包含:Ayn Rand, Steve Jobs, Sally Ride and Marie Curie

Analytical Learners

Rational types enjoy studying the complexities of language systems. This type’s desire to solve problems means they relish opportunities to analyze structures and phrases; to really figure them out. Rationals also hold themselves to a very high standard, and so they have a tendency to be too hard on themselves if they don’t reach their goals. Analytical learners excel in language learning programs that involve lots of reading, research and problem solving.

他們是分析型的學習者

理性思考型的人同樣會去思考複雜的語言系統,他們會想要了解架構或是片語,去完整地認識一種語言。他們在學語言的時候通常會設定很高的標準,所以他們常常在還沒有達到目標之前把自己逼得很緊。這類型的人很適合在在一些完整性的計畫中學習語言,其中會需要花費時間研究、閱讀並且解決問題。

The Idealists

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15-20% of the general population

The idealists group includes the types:

理想型

大約有15-20%的人屬於這類型

包含了:

ENFJ – The Protagonist(教師)

INFJ – The Advocate(諮詢師)

ENFP – The Campaigner(優勝者)

INFP – The Mediator(治療者)

Idealist characteristics:

理想型的人格特質有什麼呢?

→ Enthusiastic, trust their intuition, yearn for romance, seek their true self, prize meaningful relationships, and dream of attaining wisdom.

熱情、相信他們的直覺、喜歡浪漫、追求真實的自我、重視有意義的人際互動關係、並且渴望獲得智慧

→ Loving, kindhearted, and authentic.

討人喜愛、體貼、真誠

→ Giving, trusting, spiritual, and they are focused on personal journeys and human potentials.

樂於付出、重視精神,這類的人重視個人的人生旅程以及每個人各自的潛能

→ Intense partners, nurturing parents, and inspirational leaders.

這類的人會是影響力強大的夥伴、擅長教導、精神性的領導者

If idealist types had their way, the world would be a harmonious place filled with love and mutual respect. This type seeks identity, is focussed on self development and cares that those around them are happy. The idealist also has a knack for getting people to cooperate and dislikes confrontation of any kind.

如果理想型的人能夠將世界塑造成和諧、並且充滿愛和互相尊重的樣貌。這類性的人追求個人的獨特性,個人的自我發展是他們最關心也最能讓他們開心的事。理想型的人擅長讓人們彼此合作、並且不喜歡衝突。

Notable idealists include Princess Diana, Nelson Mandela, Oprah Winfrey and Carl Jung.

著名的理想型人包含:Princess Diana, Nelson Mandela, Oprah Winfrey and Carl Jung.

Relational Learners

Idealist types enjoy language learning that gives them the opportunity to grow, understand people and ideas and to help others develop. They appreciate activities that allow them to study people and their culture, lots of variety and communicative tasks. This type would especially enjoy being immersed in a culture where the target language is spoken as they seek out deep and meaningful connections with others.

理想型的學習者享受學習語言帶給他們的成長,並且可以藉由語言來幫助更多人發展和成長,他們喜歡透過學習不同的文化、在不同的事物中進行溝通和理解。這類型的人特別喜歡把自己沈浸在那類語言的文化背景下,而透過他們學習的語言來和這些文化有更深層互動跟接觸。

看完了四種不同的學習風格,有沒有覺得自己比較適合哪一種呢?像AT小助教自己就認為比較偏向Rationals還有Idealists的類型,日後也會試著讓自己多接觸相關的學習方式,不知道你自己是什麼類型的學習者呢?

延伸閱讀:

非母語者該如何自學及練習英文口說?

非母語者該如何加強英文聽力技巧?

AT小助教自己也在AmazingTalker上課。不過在你試試看AmazingTalker前,小助教想先問問你有沒有想過這些問題

註:16型人格的中文翻譯參考自維基百科,與英文字本身有些出入。

參考文章來源:LingQ Blog

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