【時事英文】「有圖就有真相嗎?」教你9招辨別新聞真偽

   

    

根據端傳媒報導,美國青少年不知如何分辨新聞真假,多數人相信「有圖就有真相」。當不實消息鋪天蓋地而來,聳動標題、內容不實的文章充斥社群媒體,我們到底該如何分辨新聞真偽呢?現在,希望能跟大家一起,透過新聞練習英文閱讀,同時了解國際時事。

In order to prevent the spread of fake news, here is a quick guide to spotting it.

九招教你辨別新聞真偽。

1. Read Past The Headline

One way that fake news gets amplified is that busy readers may not look past the headline or opening paragraph before they decide to share an article. Fake news publishers sometimes exploit this tendency, writing the beginning of a story in a straightforward way before filling in the rest with obviously false information.

In other cases, clicking through to the article will reveal that the story really has nothing to do with the headline at all or provides nothing to back it up.

1. 別被標題騙了!

忙碌的讀者僅瀏覽標題,掃過開頭,就按下分享。造謠者藉此將前幾段寫得確有其事,接著夾雜許多不實資訊。於是,假新聞在社群媒體病毒式傳播。仔細閱讀文章後,讀者會發現有些文章標題聳動、內容不實,有些文章標題正經但內容不正確,而文中也未提供足以支持論點的資訊。

2. Check What News Outlet Published It

Unfamiliar websites plastered with ads and all-caps headlines should draw immediate skepticism. Googling a site’s name and checking out other articles it posts should also help determine whether it’s trustworthy.

Many fake news sites will outright say that they are satire or don’t contain factual information, but others are made to mimic major news outlets. Check the URL names of pages that look suspect, making sure that it’s not a hoax site that is pretending to be a trusted source.

2. 檢查發布消息的網站。

人們需注意充斥廣告的網站,利用Google搜尋工具查詢網站名稱,確認其過往文章,以辨別網站是否可信。有些假新聞網站直接聲明他們提供諷刺及不實內容,但也有些偽裝成新聞媒體。讀者需檢查可疑的網頁URL,確定它是否為造謠網站。

圖取自The Huffington Post

圖取自The Huffington Post

3. Check The Publish Date And Time

Another common element in fake news is that old articles or events can resurface and lead people to believe they just happened. Checking the publish time stamp is something readers can quickly do to prevent being misled.

Sometimes, however, finding out when an event happened can take a bit more work ― such as when the date of an article is current, but the events described within it are old. Click through links and read carefully to determine when the event described actually happened.

3. 小心移花接木之計!

造謠網站將舊話題重新炒作,讓讀者信以為真。讀者可確認發布時間,避免誤信不實消息。不過,有時查證新聞較為耗時,造謠者將「舊」事件錯置於「新」時間點。讀者需點入連結,仔細閱讀,以辨別新聞發生的確切時間。

4. Who Is The Author?

Looking at who wrote the article can reveal a lot of information about the news source. Searching through the author’s previous articles can show whether they are a legitimate journalist or have a history of hoaxes.

4. 作者是誰?

查閱作者過往文章。讀者可搜尋作者過往文章,確認其為專業記者或為假新聞的產製者。

5. Look At What Links And Sources Are Used

A lack of links or sources for claims in an article is an obvious warning sign that the post is likely false. Fake sites may also provide numerous links to sites that appear to back up their claims, but are themselves spreading misinformation. Check to see that claims supported by links actually come from reliable sources.

5. 確認資料引用。

不實內容多缺乏資料引用。假新聞網站提供諸多連結﹝消息來源﹞支持論點,讀者需確認來源是否出自可信媒體。

6. Look Out For Questionable Quotes And Photos

It’s incredible easy for fake news writers to invent false quotes, even attributing them to major public figures. Be skeptical of shocking or suspicious quotes, and search to see if they have been reported elsewhere.

Likewise, it’s easy to take a photo from one event and say it’s from another. Images can also be altered for a certain story. Reverse image searches, either through Google or tools like TinEye, can help you find where an image originated.

6. 有圖就有真相嗎?

造謠者捏造不實引言。讀者需思辨網路謠言是否可靠並搜尋此消息是否曾被主流媒體報導。另外,造謠者散播假圖片,他們將圖片置入其他事件或裁切原圖誤導大眾判斷。讀者可藉Google或TinEye等搜尋工具,找到圖片的來源。

7. Beware Confirmation Bias

People are often drawn to stories that reinforce the way they see the world and how they feel about certain issues. Fake news is no exception, and many of the articles that fall under its umbrella are designed to stir up emotion in readers and prey on their biases.

It’s important to check that news stories are based in fact, rather than sharing them because they support one side of an argument or bolster pre-existing political beliefs.

7. 當心陷入單一認同的處境。

許多人僅相信與自己觀點相似的文章。假新聞藉此喚起讀者共鳴並強化個人感受。人們分享文章基於內容反映自身或單一黨派觀點,而非基於新聞的真實性。

8. Search If Other News Outlets Are Reporting It

If a story looks suspicious or claims to reveal major news, search to see if other news outlets are also reporting the story. A single article from a suspicious source making a grand claim should be viewed with heavy skepticism. If no reliable news outlets are also reporting the story, then it’s very likely fake.

8.  確認主流媒體是否有報導?

針對可疑網路謠言,讀者可確認其他媒體是否有報導,謹慎判斷來自可疑網站的文章。若無主流媒體報導,它可能為假新聞。

9. Think Before You Share

Fake news sites rely on readers to share and engage with their articles in order for them to spread. In extreme cases, these fake articles can balloon out of control and have unintended consequences for those involved in the stories.

After fake news stories claimed that Hillary Clinton was sexually abusing children at a Washington, D.C., pizza restaurant, the business owner and his employees received death threats and vicious online harassment. The staff is still under attack even though these false claims have been debunked.  

9. 分享前,再三確認!

假新聞靠讀者分享及參與,於社群媒體病毒式傳播。有時假新聞會失控,牽連普通百姓。像是,抹黑希拉蕊的假新聞困擾華盛頓披薩餅店,該店店主及員工收到死亡威脅。即便傳言已被證實為假新聞,員工們依然活在恐懼之下。

 

延伸閱讀》

1. 【時事英文】當心!臉書演算法將你困在「同溫層」中

編註:當臉書迎合我們喜好遞送內容,我們只看見與自己觀點相同的文章,不感興趣的貼文逐漸減少,最終形成一個個同溫層。

2. 【時事英文】臉書提出七項措施打擊假新聞

編註:同溫層助長假新聞,而假新聞間接助選川普。近期,假新聞問題鬧得沸沸揚揚,臉書教主祖克柏如何回應呢?

3. TED: 如何分辨網路上的訊息是「真」還是「假」?

參考資料》

1. 文章翻譯自The Huffington Post網站,對完整報導有興趣的朋友請參考:

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/fake-news-guide-facebook_us_5831c6aae4b058ce7aaba169

2. 紐約時報中文網:抹黑希拉蕊的假新聞困擾華盛頓披薩餅店

3. 端傳媒:美國青少年難辨新聞真假,許多人認為「有圖就有真相」